Wake up Europa, Italy is coming back to 1940

24 Maggio 2007 Commenti chiusi


11 September 1940, Minister of Interior gives order to Prefects to intern all italian Roma and Sinti and to remove all european Roma. 18 May 2007 Minister of Interior gives order to Prefects to intern into ?special camps? some Roma and Sinti and to remove all Roma and Sinti in excess. Only in Rome Prefect Serra is ready to drive out of 10.000 people (source ?La Repubblica?, page 6, 19 May 2007).

Finally the unavoidable is happened. Minister Amato and deputy Minister Minniti sign pacts among Government and local authority to fight crime (source Interior Ministry).

Italian and european citizens, living in Italy and belonging to sinti and roma minorities, by today are officially criminals and Italy decides this ?Truth? during Prodi?s Government that was engaged to recognise to these populations the right of being linguistic and ethnic minorities.

Rome and Milan are just first cities to undersign pacts but as soon as possibile other cities will arrive changing Italy into the first western country where human rights are encroached by an official act. Special powers to police which would have ?free hands? to broke all costitunial rights in order to survey camps where roma and sinti will be enclosured.

In this tragedy there is also someone who increase the problem such as NGO national Opera Nomadi association who writes on ?Repubblica?: ?More over than 160 milion of Roma, Sinti, Travellers and Romanian Roma still present in Italy will be joint by over than 60 milion of other Romanian Roma in the next months. That wuold provoke a collapse in a yet dramatic situation and it will modify fragile balances which have been conquered after several hard years?.

Jounalist Claudia Fusani writes:? In Romany there is a bomb of 2.000 people ready to live to the West after the opening of european boards?.

In Milan this project wolud cost milions of Euro, only for the courrent year more than 132 Milions. For Rome noboy knows and infact Alemanno (National Alliance Party) disputes pacts and asks new laws to face:vagrancy, begging and squatting.

It is interesting the comment of Minister Amato, one of those who wrote this national shame:?The tragic mistake of Left Parties is to think that the problem of security is only for rich people who have somenthing to defend.This problem today is felt by those who have a little and therefore they defend themselves hardest becoming enemies of those who wuold be similar?. (source ?La Repubblica?, page 6, 19 May 2007).

Minister goes on and riches the paradoxe:?This is the wrong action one can commit and it will be the effect of disrupt society and to move away people each by each?. Therefore He thinks to built, according to Serra, four camps far away in the roman countryside where 5 milion person will be imprisoned under police control; the rest of roma population will be moved away and hounted all over the Country.

Of course the recent election defeat in Sicily has been difficult for the Left Parties and this is why now they are arranging this ?security packet? which neither a racist wuold never have dreamed of.

Passwords now are: everyboby ready to the next elections whising to defeat Right Parties and to come back our Country to 1940 (eve if a look on the new Frnch right Governement wuold be healty for our new borning democratic party).

An so we ask: Europe where are you?

Riferimenti: Svegliati Europa, l?Italia è tornata al 1940

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Forced eviction of more than 10,000 Roma Announced in Italy

24 Maggio 2007 Commenti chiusi


Honourable Excellencies, The European Roma Rights Centre (ERRC) and osservAzione are writing today to request your urgent intervention in the wake of ?Pacts for Security? in Rome and Milan, signed by various authorities on 18 May 2007, which reportedly foresee the forced eviction of more than 10,000 Roma from their homes (1).

The Pacts were signed in the midst of racist media statements by the same authorities, apparently intended to fuel anti-Romani attitudes in Italy and secure broad support for the impending illegal actions.

The European Roma Rights Centre is a public interest law organisation that works to combat human rights abuse of Roma in Europe. osservAzione is a non governmental organisation engaging in a range of activities aimed at combating anti-Romani racism and human rights abuse of Roma and Sinti in Italy.

The Rome Pact was signed by the Prefect of Rome, the Mayor of Rome, the President of the Province of Rome and the President of the Region of Lazio, in the presence of the Minister of Interior (also a signatory).

According to the Rome Pact, commencing this week a joint commission of the regional government will be established which will have 3 months to identify locations for 4 ?villages of solidarity? on the periphery of Rome and another 9 months to build pre-fabricated container houses and prepare the areas for inhabitation by 4,000 Roma.

At the same time, a task force of 150 police officers (75 from the military and 75 from the state police) is being set up to ?rehabilitate the areas.?

The Milan Pact was signed by the Prefect of Milan and the Mayor of Milan, in the presence of Vice-Minister of Interior (also a signatory). The Milan Pact agrees to reduce criminality and to address the problem of unauthorised camps for Nomads.

Within 3 months of signing the Pact, the responsible authorities must ?define a strategy in which extraordinary power will be given to the Prefect to implement the strategic plan for solving the Roma emergency in Milan.? The Pact also foresees the ?intensification of controls? on the periphery (where many Roma live) to guarantee the security of Milan residents.

Media coverage surrounding the Pacts has been explicitly racist, the result of direct quotes from Italian authorities published by mainstream Italian newspapers, without any kind of editorial remark.

The most alarming article was published on 19 May 2007 by the Italian national newspaper La Repubblica, entitled: ?Prefect Serra: Those who live in the squatter settlements must go. Police to control order in the camps. And in the capital, order increases: ?Away with 10,000 unregistered Roma?.

The article was based on statements made by Mr Achille Serra, the Prefect of Rome, who announced the ?Pact for Security in Rome?. According to Mr Serra, ?ten thousand [Roma] who live in squatter settlements on the banks of the Tiber and the Aniene must go?, while only 4,000 places will be made available in the ?villages of solidarity?.

Many of the Roma concerned are reportedly from Romania. Mr Serra has reportedly been granted ?unlimited power? within all institutions and organisations relevant. Mr Serra made explicitly racist remarks about Roma, referring to them as Nomads and recalling a personal visit to existing camps. Mr Serra was quoted as having stated:

?[?] at ten? o?clock in the morning I saw children, dirty, playing with a ball. [?] The women were not around because they are at the metro stealing purses and the men were sleeping because perhaps they worked all night robbing apartments.?

Regarding the real purpose of the task force established in Rome, Mr Serra was quoted as having stated that the task force will begin systematically patrolling the existing camps, ?encouraging the Nomads to leave. If they return, the police officers will remove them again and this will continue until they understand that they must go somewhere else.?

According to La Repubblica, Mr Serra plans that by the time the ?villages of solidarity? are completed, 10,000 Roma will have been removed from the center of the city and the task force will shift their responsibilities to ?preventing the villages from becoming a centre of car theft, weapons, drugs, and prostitution.?

Honourable Excellencies, On 21 December 2005, the European Committee of Social Rights unanimously concluded that Italy had violated Article 31 of the Revised European Social Charter taken together with Article E, with respect to the insufficiency and inadequacy of camping sites for Roma in Italy, that the recurrent forced eviction of Roma by Italian authorities, and the lack of permanent dwellings made available for Roma. The Council of Europe Committee of Ministers adopted this decision on 3 May 2006 in Resolution ResChS(2006)4.

In this light, the Pacts for Security signed in Rome and Milan are especially worrying and call into question the commitment of the Italian government to upholding the various international treaties it has ratified that guarantee respect for the right to housing and freedom against forced eviction, including the Revised European Social Charter and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.

They also indicate a total disregard for the findings of the European Committee of Social Rights and the Council of Europe Committee of Ministers.

The ERRC and osservAzione call on you to use the powers of your office to rescind the racist Pacts for Security and ensure respect for the housing rights of the Roma implicated, many of whom will apparently be made homeless.

We request that you comply with your international law obligations and adopt housing policies and programmes which avoid homelessness and the further segregation of Roma, and which provide real and adequate housing solutions for the Roma currently living in squatter settlements in Italy.

We would welcome the opportunity to discuss these matters with you further. We respectfully request to be informed of actions undertaken by your office in this regard.

Thank you very much for your attention to this most urgent matter.
Sincerely, Vera Egenberger (ERRC), Piero Colacicchi (osservAzione)

To Mr Giorgio Napolitano (President of the Republic of Italy), Mr Romano Prodi (President of the Council of Ministers), Mr Giuliano Amato (Italian Minister of Interior), Marco De Giorgi, General Director UNAR

(1) See ?Pact for Security in Rome? and ?Pact for Security in Milan?, appended to this letter. In their wording, both Pacts made clear that the actions sanctioned therein target individuals considered inherently alien to each city.

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Czech Rep, roma demonstration increases pressure on pm to sack deputy Jiri Cunek

19 Aprile 2007 Commenti chiusi


Just three months after taking office Prime Minister Mirek Topolanek is struggling to keep his centre-right coalition government afloat. A fragile majority in the lower house, a rebel in his own party who is threatening to vote against the government’s proposed tax reforms and worst of all a deputy prime minister accused of corruption who has been rocking the boat for weeks.

On top of all this, around two hundred angry Roma demonstrators gathered outside government headquarters on Wednesday to demand the dismissal of the said deputy prime minister – Jiri Cunek – for offensive remarks he made about them in a newspaper interview. Chants of “shame on Cunek” and “down with the racist” filled the air outside the Czech government headquarters on Wednesday, as Roma demonstrators called for his head.

They were angry at Mr Cunek for telling a tabloid newspaper that ordinary Czechs who were not well off and seeking government assistance would have to get a suntan and cause chaos in their families in order convince others that they were poor. “He has no business being in cabinet. Let him go back to the town of Vsetin where he came from. He is not a statesman – he is a village politician.”

Jiri Cunek, the man who first came to prominence by getting tough on Roma rent defaulters in Vsetin came out and attempted to speak with the protesters, claiming that he was not a racist, but his words were drowned out by calls for him to go. Although the protesters chanted the prime minister’s name, only the minister for minorities Dzamila Stehlikova came out to receive their petition.

“The prime minister is aware of what is going on – he is working to resolve the problem,” his spokesman told the assembled crowd.

Vocal as the Roma demonstration outside the government headquarters was, the prime minister faced far greater pressure within. His coalition allies from the Green Party have threatened to walk out of the government if Mr. Cunek remains. The problem is that with 100 seats in the 200 seat lower house the prime minister cannot afford to lose either the Christian Democrats or the Greens if he wants to keep the coalition government in office.

The Christian Democrats have closed ranks around their embattled leader and, faced with the Greens’ ultimatum, Prime Minister Topolanek may be forced to sack Jiri Cunek himself.

© Radio Prague

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Terry Davis, go beyond prejudice – meet the Roma

19 Aprile 2007 Commenti chiusi


Ignorance breeds fear, and fear breeds prejudice and intolerance. For centuries, Roma have been discriminated against because of their way of life and because they remain faithful to their traditions.

For centuries, Europe has been treating its Roma population unfairly, and has been depriving itself of the opportunity to understand and enjoy the full extent of its cultural richness, heritage and diversity.

Through learning, tolerance and respect for Roma and their culture, we can make Europe a better place for all. International Roma Day is an opportunity for Roma to express their pride in being Roma and for the rest of us to express our pride in having Roma in our midst.

The fight against prejudice and discrimination is a priority for the Council of Europe, which is currently conducting a campaign in South Eastern Europe with the slogan ?Dosta ? Go beyond prejudice, meet the Roma?. Tolerance and mutual respect is also the central message of the Council of Europe Youth campaign ?All Different, All Equal?.

Statement by Terry Davis, Secretary General of the Council of Europe on International Roma Day. © Council of Europe

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Belarus, april 8 is International Roma Day

19 Aprile 2007 Commenti chiusi


International Roma Day, which is celebrated on the 8th of April, is quite famous in Eastern and Central Europe. However, while we know a lot about Roma situation in Romania or Hungary, little attention is paid to Roma in Belarus, small country situated, as some people believe, in the centre of Europe. To collect some information on Roma community in Belarus we organized an interview with Nicolas Kalinin, Belarusian delegate to European Roma Travelers Forum. By Olia Yatskevich

Talking about Roma issues in Belarus I cannot see a lot of differences from the communist period. The situation of Roma people in Belarus very similar to Roma issues in other parts of Europe. Belarus is not another Earth. All problems, which exist in Europe, can be detected in Belarus as well. But Belarus have specific feature ? in this country government doing everything feasible and unfeasible to ignore Roma minority. As a conclusion, which based on 2 years term observations, I can deduce that all national minorities in Belarus incur the same problems.

Why this problem is so specific?
I think device ?if we can?t understand it ? this does not exist? refers directly to this situation. Belarusian government does not want to recognize that in Belarus Roma people have the same problems as, for example, in Poland. Belarusian government does not want to admit well-known fact. Of course it looks exceedingly strange.

How you can describe multiethnic situation in Belarus?
I can repeat once again that future generations will study history using Belarusian example. Frankly speaking Belarusians are very tolerant people. A lot of people have Jewish, Tatars, Polish roots. I believe Belarusian nationalism is artificially created. At the same time, a lot of clear cases of discrimination against national minorities can be noticed. But this discrimination is not based on inter-national relations. It politically colored. It looks like exception but it existing. The cause of this discrimination rooted in soviet period. Extent last period from collapse of Soviet Union nothing altered in multiethnic relations in Belarus. The government policy is totally same.

What can you say about governmental policy towards Roma?
Belarusian government has done a lot of steps backward and nothing beneficial for Roma. I understand now that official authority is absolutely disable in direction of national minority and religion faith direction. Soviet standards are inappropriate now. Official Committee on national and religious affairs works applying old Soviets methodology which existed 20 years ago. Of course, it is a huge step back. Flexibility has been never encouraged in Belarus.

What are the main problems faced by Belarusian population?
Belarus is in difficult situation. It relats to all parts of the society (economy, multiethnic relations, political environment etc). Modern life goals new aims, new priorities. Lack of flexibility in all branches of modern Belarusian society can play negative but crucial role in the future. World changes. Modern society pursuits equal relations in multiethnic Europe. It concerns all branches. As we see China recognized it. Belarus last country, which blind to new challenges.

Is the some specific authority who dealing with national minorities in Belarus?
Yes, we have special committee, in all local authority we have people, who dealing with this issue. As from Soviet Union period we have a lot of different committees, so complicated system, when nobody responsible but everyone is boss. We knew from Soviet period when quality doesn?t mean quantity. You cannot restore broken flint- glass cap using hammer. Of course, you will destroy beautiful and useful thing. At the same time delicate relations between minorities cannot be solved using police forces, pressure, intimidations or violence. Fear is not so pleasant feeling for long-term relations.

Do you think this situation can be changes?
My attempts to establish dialog with other minorities was a significant step forward. We all face the same problems. I think unity of national minorities is big step forward. Regarding Roma issues I think Roma political participation deserves more attention. I can the difference of Roma political parties in other countries Eastern and Central Europe. Roma political participation has big future. Very interesting fact, but when specialist decided to explore who votes for Roma candidates, they found that not-Roma voters vote in favor of Roma candidates. I think unity of national minorities and national minority political participation are two main essential points.

Do you think political party in Belarus will be willing to support Roma candidates? I am really disappointed in all political parties in Belarus. I think all opposition political movement is a bad organized show to spend grants. I am really disappointed. It seems to me that time when USA and EU will change they strategy towards Belarus is not so far. Last 13 years it was knocking in locked door. Changes are need. In Belarus we have good relation with Belarusian ?greens?. Our point of views coincides with Belarusian Greens party.

Do you believe the situation will change soon?
I think democracy is inevitable. Together we are strong.

© Transitions Online Blogs

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International Roma Day, press release to ENAR

11 Aprile 2007 Commenti chiusi


On the occasion on International Roma Day on 8 April1, the European Network Against Racism recalls the words of Vladimir ?pidla, the European Commissioner for Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities that ?the situation of the Roma is a European issue that calls for an EU solution?.

In recent years the EU has done much to promote the inclusion of Roma, Sinti and Traveller communities, including the establishment of a comprehensive anti-discrimination legal framework and the implementation of substantial funding measures. However deep-seated problems remain for Europe?s largest minority.

A recent Eurobarometer survey, conducted in January 2007 for the launch of the European Year of Equal Opportunities for All, found that 77% of Europeans believe that being a Roma is a disadvantage in their society. ENAR members and other NGOs across Europe continue to document widespread abuse and disadvantage experienced by Roma, Sinti and Traveller communities.

In its 2005 Shadow Report on Racism in Europe ENAR concluded that: ?Roma, Sinti and Travellers represent a particular group that have consistently experienced discrimination in Europe.?

The European Union must effectively mainstream its response to the situation of Roma across the whole range of tools available to it. In particular ENAR calls for the strategic and targeted use of the Open Method of Coordination on Social Inclusion and Social Protection, and of the Lisbon Process on Growth and Jobs. Both strategies and their national reports have not to date adequately addressed the urgent need to respond to the situation of Roma communities.

?Roma are the largest and one of the most excluded minorities in Europe?, said Bashy Quraishy, ENAR President, adding that ?the European Union has achieved much in terms of Roma inclusion, but clearly the picture remains serious; the EU must now maintain its energy and reinvigorate its efforts to find solutions to the problems facing these communities?.

The European Network Against Racism (ENAR) is a network of European NGOs working to combat racism in all EU member states and represents more than 600 NGOs spread around the European Union.

Its establishment was a major outcome of the 1997 European Year Against Racism. ENAR aims to fight racism, xenophobia, anti-Semitism and Islamophobia, to promote equality of treatment between EU citizens and third country nationals, and to link local/regional/national initiatives with European initiatives.

For further information, contact:
Georgina Siklossy, Communication and Press Officer
Phone: 32-2-229.35.70 – Fax: 32-2-229.35.75
E-mail: georgina@enar-eu.org – Website: http://www.enar-eu.org/en

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Germany, International Day on the Roma

5 Aprile 2007 Commenti chiusi


On the occasion of the International Day on the Roma on April 8, Volker Beck, human rights policy spokesperson declares:

The living conditions of many Roma in Europe are catastrophic. It is scandalous that slums exist in the heart of the European Union.

The European Union must act now. The situation of the Roma must not be defined as the minimal standard in the EU. A coherent and efficient strategy of integration of disadvantaged and discriminated minorities into society, education systems and into the labour market must be developed. The German European Council Presidency is to act on this!

Since the first World congress of the Roma in 1971, April 8 is being commemorated in more than forty countries. This day is a symbol for the solidarity with the Roma people and the civil rights movement of the Roma.

This day is also used as a reminder to point to the continuous discrimination and marginalization of the Roma in Europe. Even though the Roma have been living in European countries for hundreds of years, they, like no other group, are subject to multiple forms of discrimination in Education systems, the labour market, housing, in the health system and in other areas. Many Roma have to live in Ghettos, with no infrastructure.

Their children are being sent to special education schools or other special education facilities. In some countries, female Roma were sterilized without their knowledge or consent. In addition, Roma are remarkably often subjected to violence ? even from official sides.

The current development is a scandal and is incompatible with the human rights standards and social standards of the European Union.

The EU has declared 2007 as the year of equal opportunities. The declaration explicitly refers to the ?increase of hostility against Roma and the resulting discrimination in the areas of employment, education and social services for the most disadvantaged ethnic minority in the European Union?. Up to now, this has not resulted in concrete initiatives.

The German Federal Government is now required to increase the priority for the combat against discrimination of the Roma during the International year and beyond. Concrete activities must be undertaken now.

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Czech, romany activist insists on illegality of eviction

31 Marzo 2007 Commenti chiusi


The statement by ombusdman Otakar Motejl that the demolition of a house inhabited by Romanies and their removal to a new one was legal is incorrect, Czech Romany activist Jan Rac told CTK today.

A few days ago, Rac sent a comprehensive report on the course of the Romanies’ eviction from the dilapidated house to Motejl. Rac says that the houses in the Vsetin neighbourhood Poschla, to which some families have been removed, are going mildewy and are not consistent with sanitary regulations. Rac had also a detailed study on the eviction of unadapted families in Vsetin drafted.

“I have sent it to the ombudsman. We will certainly change his mind. The eviction from the dilapidated house also related to the families that regularly paid the rent. This amounts to violation of human rights. No one has the right to do this,” Rac told CTK. Rac said that it was not true that the houses to which the Romanies had been moved fulfilled the conditions of the construction law.

According to the paper Mlada fronta Dnes (MfD), Motejl said that the relocation was consistent with the construction law. Rac said that the flats were going mildewy. The Vsetin town hall started the demolition of the ramshackle house last October. It ejected the local rent-defaulters, mostly of Romany origin, to other houses, some of them outside the town.

At that time, the town hall was led by current Christian Democrat leader Jiri Cunek. Thirteen criminal complaints have been lodged against Cunek over the case.

© Prague Daily Monitor

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Slovakia, stop singling out Roma for birth control, ERTF says

31 Marzo 2007 Commenti chiusi


On the occasion of the organisation by the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) of an international conference called ?Sharing best practices and tools in addressing the sexual and reproductive rights of the Roma? in Bratislava, the president of the European Roma and Travellers Forum, Rudko Kawczynski expressed concerns about the Federation?s plans and motives.

?I am utmost disgusted that IPPF had to choose Slovakia for the implementation of one of their pilot projects and as a place for today?s venue,? Rudko Kawczynski said reminding that Slovakia had just been under attacks over alleged forced sterilisations of Romani women and that the cases have still not been sufficiently clarified.

?Choosing Slovakia as a place for this conference and not even mentioning the irremediable damage done to Romani women and communities comes as an implicit approval of these policies,? Kawczynski said. While specifying that he was not opposed to sexual education and family planning the president of the European Roma and Travellers Forum said that this should take place in the context of mainstreaming such as information about contraceptives being provided at schools.

?The racist character of this initiative becomes immediately apparent if you replace the word ?Roma? by ?Jews? or any other group. A programme aimed towards improving the access to contraceptives for the Hungarian minority in Slovakia would immediately provoke an outcry. If the same is done for Romani people almost everyone agrees that something needs to be done about their ?uncontrolled? growth,? Kawczynski said.

The aim of the conference was described by the organisers as ?to define mechanisms, share experiences and best practices from different initiatives which could provide a basis for policymakers and civil society to address the needs and to promote the rights of Roma people.?

More specifically, the organisers wanted to share the experiences of two pilot projects carried out in Slovakia and Hungary in the context of IPPF ?Roma project? aimed ?at providing accessible and high quality sexual and reproductive health services and sexuality education for Roma and other marginalized groups.?

The projects seem to receive funding from the European Commission. The International Planned Parenthood Federation has been criticised for its close ties with the international eugenic movement. In 1939, the founder of the organisation, Margaret Sanger launched two ?demonstration programs? in America?s south aimed to promote family planning among the black population.

Sanger described the aims of the ?Negro project? as follows: ?We believe birth control knowledge brought to this group, is the most direct, constructive aid that can be given them to improve their immediate situation.? (Margaret Sanger, July 1939)

Spoloènos pre plánované rodièovstvo, the Slovak partner of IPPF and implementing agency of the project, describes its rational as follows: ?The so-called Roma problem in Slovakia has a historical, cultural and social background extending beyond territorial boundaries of Slovakia. ? According to the analyses made at the meetings mentioned above, the high natality is one of the reasons why the existing situation is deteriorated.

The high birthrate and multiparity result in children not being provided with health care, not obtaining adequate education and later in their lives, they are not able to acquit themselves well on the increasingly demanding labour market. A vicious circle arises, which continues to expand and brings about growing tension in the society.? In the same way as the ?Negro project?, IPPF?s Roma projects rely on the active support of so-called community leaders.

Kawcynski called on the EU Commission not to finance projects which single out Roma for birth control. ?It is an irony that at a time where everyone is concerned about Europe?s declining population, Roma are singled out for programmes of population control. Instead of eliminating poverty these programmes seek to eliminate the poor, in particular, Roma.?

?Common wisdom teaches us that there is a close link between the material situation of a family and the number of children they have. If people increase their material well-being they tend to have fewer children. Roma are not any different from this,? the president of the European Roma and Travellers Forum said urging policy-makers to take resolute action to improve the living conditions of Roma.

The European Roma and Travellers Forum is the international Romani interest representation which gathers Europe?s main international Roma organisations and more than 1,500 member organisations from most of the Council of Europe member states. In December 2004, the Forum signed a partnership agreement with the Council of Europe which provides for special relations between both organisations.

© European Roma and Travellers Forum

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Italy, one race: human race

29 Marzo 2007 Commenti chiusi


We introduce the first part of the relation ?the race between science and myth? proposed on 21 March, world-wide day against racism, from Diego Saccani, Daiana and Manuel Gabrieli that carry out the year of Civil Service to the Nomadic Moral Agency Work Section of Mantova.

The day of studies promoted from Sucar Drom, from the Institute of Sinta Culture and sponsored from the Province of Mantova, has answered to the appeal of United Against Racism and has seen the participation of Nando Sigona, investigator of the University of Oxford and founder of OsservAzione.

The relation is opened with a citation of Ashley Montagu, had the scope to show as the idea of race is near the myth and far to science, than the human race is a single one and that the race concept is a recent invention connected with the exploitation of the slavery.

Moreover it is demonstrated like the Rom languages and Sinte for their characteristic of speech language, have suffered the difference from a language standard to which in the modern states corresponded also onenation.

Part One
One race: Human race

The idea of race is one of the most dangerous and most tragic myth of our time. The myths are much more effective and dangerous as we don?t know their true nature. Many people are pride to think that are the primitive people to believe in myths, while we think that we are completely free from them.

We can be convinced that the myth is a wrong explanation that leads to the disappointment and the social error, but usually we do not realize that we share with all the men of every time and place the faculty to create myths , than everyone has its myth supply, derived from the traditional patrimony of the society in which we live.

In the past times we believed in the magic, in the obsession, in the exorcisms, the good or bad supernatural forces, and still in recent times we believed in the witchcraft. Today many people believe in the race. The race is the witchcraft of our time; the way with which we exorcise the demons. It is the myth of today; the most dangerous myth of the man.
Ashley Montagu (1966)

The human genome is the much less variable one than that one of the greater part of the species on which we have genetic information. In human beings only two bases on thousands is various from an individual to the other. Genetically the human beings are similar to 99.9%.

This implies minimal difference regarding the standard of the other species. This lack of variation is not found not even between our next relatives: chimpanzee, gorilla and orang-utan have approximately an equal variability to 3,2 and 3,5 times regarding ours.

With the analysis of the mitochondrial DNA and of the chromosome Y it is clearly because the human beings are similar. Our common ancestors lived in the most recent times: approximately 150000 years ago.

An insufficient time because the mutations can introduce substantial variations. One unexpected discovery was that the meager existing genetic variation in our species is not correlated if not in minimal part to the race.

The event of the study of Cann and Wilson on the migration of the human beings from Africa, assert that it has happened in a very recent times, while before it was given for sure the isolation of the human groups.

On the base of the model of Pualing-Zuckerlandl, which says that the entity of the genetic divergence between populations is function to the time of isolation, the extended isolation would have allowed the accumulation of consisting genetic differences.

o the light of the studies of Cann and Wilson , our common ancestors are very recent, it is clearly that it is not elapsed enough time because it could generate meaningful divergences.

Therefore, although some genetic differences, as the colour of the skin is manifest in the various groups, those of the race stretch to being limited. The greater part of our meager genetic variation in reality is distributed in uniform way in all the populations: there is the same probability to find one particular varying form in one African and one European.

The genetic variation was aroused before the modern human beings migrate from the African Continent. It was already present in the groups that later colonized the rest of the world.

The researches conduct on the genome plan have established that only 2% of our DNA codify the genes and that indicates that at least 98% of the human variation resides in regions of the genome in which do not have function.

Since the natural selection is effective to eliminate mutations that interest the functional parts of the genome (the genes) the variations stretch to accumulate in not codifying regions (trash DNA).

Not only the genetic difference between humans is small: the real differences that derive are still more insignificant. The greater part of consisting differences that are observed between human groups, like the colour of the skin, is probably fruit of the natural relation.

With the loss of the body hair, the pigment begin necessary in order to protect the coetaneous cells from the ultraviolet solar rays. The pigment cell reduces the damage from UV. The natural selection has favourite the acquisition of the dark skin in order to avoid the cancer, the burns and the infection that derive from the exposure to the beams of the sun .

The population that live to high latitudes has lost the pigment cell, because of the D3 vitamin . When our ancestors exited from Africa moving itself in atmospheres characterize from an emphasized meteorological variability, the natural selection could have favourite the individuals of clear skin.

Bibliography

Cann R.L., Stoneking M., e Wilson A.C., 1987, Mitochondrial DNA and human evolution, Nature, pag.31?36.

Montagu Ashley, (1966) La razza. Analisi di un mito, Torino, Einaudi, pag.21. [ed. or. Man?s most dangerous Myth. The Fallacy of Race, New York 1952]

Zuckerkandl E. & Pauling L. (1962). Molecular disease, evolution and genetic heterogeneity. In Horizons in Biochemisty (B., M. & Pullman, B., eds.) :189-225. Academic Press, London.

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